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Influenza Vaccination for 2012/2013

Influenza Vaccination for 2012/2013

Toward the end of each year, upper respiratory tract infections, especially Influenza become prevalent in our locality.  There are two peak seasons for flu epidemic in Hong Kong, January to March and July to August.  Symptoms of influenza include have fever, cough, runny nose, sore throat, malaise and stomach upset etc.  Occasionally there are complications like pneumonia, bronchitis and otitis media of which the patient may need antibiotic therapy as well as hospitalization.

In order to prevent Influenza effectively, the Department of Health of HKSAR recommends children >6 months to < 6 years should receive influenza vaccine.  This will lower the chance of getting influenza and minimize the occurrence of complications.  The patient should receive the flu vaccine between October to December.  If your kid has not received any flu vaccine before, he or she should get two doses: one month apart (e.g. 1st dose in October and the 2nd dose in November).  For subsequent years, one dose is enough.

The components of influenza vaccine are made according the World Health Organization’s recommendations every year.

Our clinic will provide two types of Influenza vaccines, namely intramuscular injection and nasal spray.

 

Intramuscular Injection

(Traditional flushot)

Vaxigrip

Nasal Spray

(Intranasal Flu Vaccine)

FluMist

Target group

>6 months to Adults

> 2 yr to 49 yr

Subjects NOT fit to receive

Allergic to egg, Gentamicin, Gelatin & Arginine; previous allergic reaction to flu vaccine

 

  1. History of wheezy or asthma
  2. Patient on aspirin

Additional benefit

 

  1. Enhanced protection for upper airway via direct local stimulation of the upper airway by the spray
  2. No “needle fear” and pain

 

 

正確認識兒童發燒抽筋

正確認識兒童發燒抽筋

發燒抽筋又叫高熱驚厥症,通常是發生在六個月到五歲大的小孩上,因為發燒而引至抽筋。抽筋時小孩多會失去知覺、反白眼、牙關緊閉、嘴脣發紫和四肢不自主的抽搐,甚至有失禁的現象。家長若是第一次目睹小孩抽筋,必覺得十分恐怖。但祇要家長對於發燒抽筋有一定的認識,必可第一時間幫助小孩。

 發燒抽筋是一種常見的兒童急症,每百名六個月到五歲大的小孩便有四個患有此病。發燒的原因原通常是由於上呼吸道感染、氣管炎、肺炎、腸胃炎、尿道炎等引致。抽筋的時間通常維持一至兩分鐘,很少會長於十五分鐘。除非抽筋的時間多於三十分鐘,一般的發燒抽筋是對小孩的腦部沒有傷害的。

發燒抽筋的護理

護理發燒抽筋的小孩可分兩方面﹕第一,退燒﹔第二,讓呼吸道暢順。

退燒方法如下﹕家長應使室內空氣流通,開啓窗戶及風扇,甚至開冷氣,並以温水替病童抹身。家長應切勿替他蓋上厚被,或關閉窗戶,因為這可能令體温更加高升,促使第二次抽筋。

至於呼吸系统方面,家長應保持鎮定,把孩子移到安全的地方,然後把孩子安置於復原卧式的姿勢,亦即讓孩子口部微側至下,身軀側卧,以便讓嘔吐物不至阻塞氣道,避免窒息。家長千萬別把硬物如匙羹置於孩子口中,防止孩子〝咬脷〞,因患者抽肋時牙關會緊閉,多大的力度也無法打開﹔况且當牙關閉上時,舌頭會自然向後移,基本上甚少有〝咬脷〞的情況發生。用硬物弄開口腔更會把牙齒弄傷,甚至脫落,阻塞氣道引致窒息。

小孩病發後,必須立即往醫生處求診,因為除卻上述原因會引致發燒、抽筋外,其他嚴重疾病如腦膜炎、腦炎亦會有發燒、抽筋的徵狀﹔因此,由醫生檢查及確診是十分重要的。

發燒抽筋會否復發?

小孩患有一次發燒抽筋後,約有百分之三十的機會將來有第二次復發。 若小孩抽筋的時間很長,在同一次病患中有兩次或以上的抽筋,及抽筋的類別屬於局部的抽筋,這表示小孩將來發展為癲癇症的機會略高而己。

總括而言,發燒抽筋是一個並不可怕的疾病,除非抽筋的次數很頻密,否則孩童是不需要長期服藥的,待五歲後發燒抽筋便會自然痊癒。

 

Vaccination Programme In Hong Kong *

Baby can receive routine vaccination in Private Paediatricians or in Family Health Service Centre run by the Department of Health.  Private Paediatricians would provide a few more vaccinations of which the Department of Health does not cover.

Family Health Service Centre

Private Paediatrician

Vaccine Type

  • Hepatitis B
  • Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus-Polio
  • Mumps-Measles-Rubella
  • Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus-Polio Booster
  • Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
  • Chickenpox (starting in 2014)
  • Hepatitis B
  • Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus-Polio-Hib (5 in 1)
  • Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus-Polio-Hib-Hep B (6 in 1)
  • Mumps-Measles-Rubella
  • Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus-Polio Booster
  • Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib)
  • Pneumoccocal Conjugate Vaccine
  • Chickenpox
  • Rotavirus
  • Seasonal Influenza
  • Hepatitis A
  • Meningococcal
  • Human papillomavirus
  • Mumps-Measles-Rubella-Varicella Vaccine

 

Private Paediatricians usually provide vaccination in form of combined vaccines e.g. Infanrix-IPV-Hib (5 in 1) or Infanrix-hexa (6 in 1).  These would minimize the number of shots and episodes of fever after injections.

What is Hib Vaccine?  Should we receive this vaccine?

Hib vaccine stands for Haemophilus Influenzae type b vaccine.  Hib can cause acute epiglottitis, meningitis and septicaemia, which could further cause significant morbidity and mortality.  Although this disease is relatively rare in Chinese, the best prevention is still the primary vaccination.

Can my baby visit Family Health Service Centre to get the primary vaccination and come back to Dr Woo’s Clinic for mop-up vaccination?

Of course, yes.

The following table illustrates the mop-up vaccines that your baby can receive in our clinic if you want to have these three additional ones for your baby.  In many developed countries, Hib and Rotavirus vaccines are considered as routine immunization in the national immunization programme.

Other vaccines of which parents can consider for the baby include Influenza vaccine, Hepatitis A vaccine, Meningococcal vaccine and Human Papilomavirus vaccine.  Since the development of vaccine changes quickly, we will keep you updated.